Would you like to know what a technical term means in the world of colours? Find out here!
Additives help to control the properties of paint as required. Wetting agents, for example, are used as aids and improve the mixing of binders and pigments. Other additives are, for example, water repellents or coagulants. The term auxiliary materials is also used in this case.
Auxiliary materials help to control the properties of paint as required. Wetting agents, for example, are used as aids and improve the mixing of binders and pigments. Other auxiliary materials are, for example, water repellents or coagulants. The term additive is also used in this case.
The type of binder standardises paint and also determines its description. Binders are materials that ensure the adhesion of the paint to the substrate. The paints are mostly mixed with pigments and fillers in liquid form to distribute them evenly and so that all the paint's solid materials are evenly mixed with the binder. The type of binders can cause the paint to lose significant processing and material properties.
Facade coatings can be equipped with biocides in order to combat infestation by micro-organisms. Active algicide and fungicide agents are examples of biocides. They can prevent an infestation of the façade or interior by microorganisms, such as algae and fungi, but not permanently. Biocides also include preservatives.
Chlorine compounds can have a very irritating effect. Organic chlorine compounds also include highly poisonous, persistent and bioaccumulative substances, such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.
There are, furthermore, a wide variety of natural organic chlorine connections that could be synthesised by organisms such as ground bacteria, mould fungi, seaweed and lichens.
Cracks occur when tension builds up within the material that the material is not able to absorb. The cause of such tensions could be differences in temperature within the material or components.
Dyes are substances which, in contrast to pigments, can be dissolved in solvents and binders. Besides the colouring effect, dyes generally do not have any covering ability; they can, however, adhere to solid materials.
Efflorescence is a type of structural damage and describes the crystallisation of dissolved salts. The salts are dissolved in ingressed water and are moved by the transportation of moisture within the substrate. Once the structure dries, the salts recrystalise. This results in an increase in volume, which in turn can result in layers of render or coating spalling. Lime efflorescence behaves differently, the processes are comparable, but, in this case, it is primarily only the appearance that is spoiled due to white stains or haze.
Emission (from the Latin emittere - "send out") is the general emanation of disruptive factors into the environment.
External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems
An External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS) consists of one composite of various layers which are fixed to the exterior walls. ETIC Systems are not self-supporting systems, but are instead a second cover that gives the building additional protection from the weather and decreases the degree of heat loss. An ETIC System consists of adhesive mortar in order to secure the insulation panels, dowels for securing panels and a reinforcing mortar in which mesh reinforcement is embedded which ensures a robust and impact-protected surface. The structure of the ETIC System will remain hidden to the eye when everything is finished, only the top layer of render and the coat of paint will remain visible. KEIM offers mineral materials that have proved themselves over decades and represent the optimum solution ecologically, economically and in terms of health.
Fogging is a description of the discolouration which effects walls and ceilings as they become covered with a black layer of plasticiser and dust particles. The plasticisers are usually emitted by glues, furniture or flooring.
The effect usually occurs in heated apartments during the winter. A patchy black layer develops on the ceiling or walls.
Fillers are solid mineral particles that are many times larger than pigments. Solid colour-neutral particles are usually used, e.g. quartz, slate or dolomite powder. Fillers are used in order to increase the mechanical resistance of paint, for example.
Grey energy is the term used to describe the amounts of energy used for the production, transport, storage, sale and disposal of a product. This also involves all precursor products up to raw material production/extraction, and all energy used during all production processes being taken into consideration and added up. When machines or structural infrastructure is required for production, the energy required for their manufacture and upkeep is also proportionally included in the grey energy of the final product. This means that grey energy is the indirect energy requirement due to the purchase of the product.
Grout or filler coats
Grout coats are paints with little grains that fill up and cover cracks. Grout coats always need a final coating with "normal" paint.
When looked at from a physics perspective, what we describe as heat loss is nothing but a balancing of energy states between two differentially heated points. In the case of buildings, this happens as the uncontrolled and unwanted side effect of, for example, airing.
For a material to convey as little heat as possible, it should have many microfine cavities in which there is air. Standing air conveys heat very poorly because the exchange of heat takes place through convection; in other words, through the movement of air. There are several different types of materials which are processed into insulation panels (facade insulation). The most well-known are polystyrene, mineral wool or calcium silicate.
The longevity of painted facades is primarily influenced by the resistance of paint against weather influences. The silicate bond of mineral paints or silicate paints is enormously robust and resistant because the "silicate" binder is absolutely UV stable in contrast to dispersion paints. The same also applies to the inorganic pigments and the mineral fillers. KEIM silicate paints or mineral paints are legendary for their durability and longevity and remain intact and aesthetically pleasing over decades.
Lasur painting technique
A lasur describes a transparent or semi-transparent coating. Mineral renders, masonry or fair-faced concrete can be lasured exactly like wood.
In addition to inorganic pigments as the primary ingredient, mineral paints contain an alkali potassium silicate which is called potassium water glass, or also fluid potassium silicate or LIQVOR SILICIVM. A coat of mineral paint does not form a layer, as is the case with other coatings, as it instead forms an insoluble bond with the substrate (silicification).
The colour of mineral paints is extremely stable. After they have been tinted using only mineral pigments – which are not affected by UV light – the silicate coatings remain the same colour over decades.
Mineral paints are based on mineral raw materials. They are very environmentally friendly in their production and effect. Their long service life saves resources, and their composition does not contain any hazardous substances, which treats the environment and health with care.
Pigments (Latin pigmentum meaning "colour") are colour-giving solid substance particles. Pigments can be of organic or inorganic origin. Inorganic (mineral) pigments are more stable under UV influences than organic pigments. In addition to the decorative effect, pigments also give good coverage and are easily dispersible with binders. In contrast to paints, pigments cannot be dissolved in an application medium.
Potassium silicate is a glass-like solid material which is soluble in water. Potassium silicate is created by melting together quartz sand, potassium carbonate and coal. The solid mixture of potassium silicate and silica is often transformed into a syrup-like solution by further application of superheated water.
In addition to inorganic pigments as the primary ingredient, silicate paints contain an alkali potassium silicate , which is called potassium water glass, or also fluid potassium silicate. A coat of mineral paint does not form a layer, as is the case with other coatings, as it instead forms an insoluble bond with the substrate (silicification). Silicate paints have unequalled colour stability. As they are made using only mineral pigments – which are not affected by UV light – the silicate coatings remain the same colour over decades. Silicate paints are based on mineral raw materials. They are very environmentally friendly in their production and effect. Their long service life saves resources, and their composition does not contain any hazardous substances, which treats the environment and health with care.
Coats of mineral paint are particularly durable because of the insoluble bond with the substrate. Only the special recipe of the silicate paint makes this permanent bond between paint and substrate possible. The professional calls this process silicification. Silicification creates an extremely lasting bond that can no longer be stripped.
Sol-silicate paint is based on an entirely new binder concept, which opens up whole new areas for the application of silicate paints. The Sol-silicate binder, a stabilised combination of silica sol and water glass, bonds with mineral substrates through silicification, but additionally develops strong adhesive forces which ensure a firm attachment to coatings based on organic resin binders (dispersions and silicone resin). This allows for application to virtually any common substrate. Having an organic content of below 5%, Sol-silicate paints satisfy the requirements of DIN 18363 for silicate emulsion paints.
A solvent is a material that can dissolve or thin gasses, liquids or solid substances without a chemical reaction occurring between the dissolved substance and the dissolving substance. Usually, liquids like water and fluid organic substances are used to dissolve other substances. The most commonly used solvent is water, which is also used during the production of paint but usually not mentioned because it is harmless. With respect to paints, lacquers, adhesives etc., the term "solvent" corresponds to substances that, among other things, could be responsible for unpleasant odours, or damage health and the environment. They are, on the one hand, volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are usually evaporated just a few hours to days following processing, or on the other hand, less volatile substances which, from a purely legal point of few, are not solvents. These are sometimes used in "solvent-free" products as substitutes and, under certain conditions, are emitted into the ambient atmosphere for months or even years.
Thermal bridges are energetic weak points in the building envelope. These are caused either by geometric reasons or by the physical properties of the construction material. Due to better thermal conductivity of a component compared to adjacent components, a high and unwanted loss of heat occurs at an individual point, and this results in a lower surface temperature on the inside of the exterior wall. A high risk then exists in such a case, if the dew point is exceeded in the process, the humidity condensates on the surfaces of the walls and so forms the bases on which mould can develop inside. Thermal bridges are also responsible for the fogging effect during which plasticisers in the ambient air settle.
Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation that is invisible to the human eye due to a shorter wavelength than light that is visible to humans. UV radiation comes from sunlight. Due to absorption in the atmosphere (particularly in the ozone layer), it is, however, primarily things such as UV-A and a little UV-B radiation that reach the earth's surface. UV radiation not only results in the heating of the earth's surface, but also in the accelerated break-down of organic substances such as plastics.
Water vapour permeability
Water vapour permeability or water vapour diffusion permeability describes the permeability of a coating with respect to water vapour. The greater the water vapour diffusion permeability of paint, the better the moisture can be emitted. In interior areas, this can prevent mould formation in combination with the correct airing.
Water glass is the name given to the glass-like – in other words amorphous – water-soluble sodium and potassium silicates or the watery solutions that solidify after a melt. Depending on whether predominantly sodium or potassium silicates are contained, either the term sodium water glass or potassium water glass is used.